Permanent human habitation on the Moon is one of science fiction's most prevalent themes. As technology has advanced, and concerns about the future of humanity on Earth have increased, the argument that space colonization is an achievable and worthwhile goal has gained momentum.  Because of its proximity to Earth, the Moon has been seen as a prime candidate for the location of humanity's first permanently occupied space colony. 

Building a Moon Colony inside a deep crater would provide at least partial shielding against radiation and micrometeoroids.  Some suggest building the Lunar colony underground, which would give complete protection from radiation and micrometeoroids.  This also greatly reduces the risk of air leakage, as the colony will be fully sealed from the outside except for a few exits to the surface. 

A future Moon colony could be a site for launching rockets with locally-manufactured fuel to distant planets such as Mars.  Launching rockets from the Moon would be easier than from Earth because the Moon's gravity is lower, requiring a lower escape velocity.  A lower escape velocity would require less propellant. 

The colonization of the Moon is the core of future robot industries on the Moon.  One suggested trade commodity, Helium-3 (He-3) from the solar wind, is thought to have accumulated on the Moon's surface over billions of years, and has tremendous value to humans on Earth.

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